The expression of X-chromosome undergoes three possible biological processes: X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), escape of the X-chromosome inactivation (XCI-E),and skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI-S). To analyze the X-linked genetic association for phenotype such as continuous, binary, and time-to-event outcomes with the actual process unknown, we propose a unified approach of maximizing the likelihood or partial likelihood over all of the potential biological processes. The methods are described in Wei Xu, Meiling Hao (2017) <doi:10.1002/gepi.22097>. And also see Dongxiao Han, Meiling Hao, Lianqiang Qu, Wei Xu (2019) <doi:10.1177/0962280219859037>


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